jueves, septiembre 08, 2005

EL MANIQUEISMO

Mientras que en el Imperio Romano la formación de las grandes escuelas gnósticas concluye en el siglo II, en el Oriente (Mesopotamia), comienza en el siglo III una edad de oro de religión gnóstica a escala mundial. Es el trabajo de un hombre que ha pasado a la historia de la humanidad como uno de los grandes fundadores de religiones. Maniqueísmo, que es de lo que estamos hablando, puede ser considerado como una de las cuatro religiones mundiales conocidas a la historia de las religiones. Esto significa que comparte la posición con el Budismo, el Cristianismo y el Islam, pero que, en contraste con éstas, yace en el pasado. R.Haardt la ha caracterizado apropiadamente como “la sistematización final y lógica de la Gnosis de la antigüedad tardía como una religión universal de revelación con un carácter misionero”.

Las Condiciones de sus Orígenes

El terreno para el origen de esta religión gnóstica mundial — designación válida en su sentido más pleno — ha sido preparado durante un tiempo considerable ya que Mesopotamia tiene no sólo una civilización antiquísima sino también una rica variedad de tradiciones religiosas que se han desarrollado y encontrado aquí en el curso de una historia de algunos miles de años. Además de los retoños de antiguos cultos babilonios que pueden ser rastreados aquí y allí hasta el período helenístico tardío, estaban también las ideas religiosas iranias que penetraron durante el transcurso de la dominación persa (539 aC) y, luego de ésta y a partir de Alejandro, de la dominación helénica. Más aún, en el tiempo del llamado Exilio babilónico (597 aC) emergió en el país un fuerte judaísmo. Durante el transcurso del siglo II, el cristianismo penetró desde Siria y, en el norte especialmente, formó centros tales como Edesa y Nísibe.

Es notable que los grupos que predominaron al principio fueron luego declarados herejes, como los gnósticos (una escuela herética particular identificada en Edesa son los seguidores de un tal Cuq, los Cuquitas), marcionitas y judeocristianos. Esta particularidad del cristianismo oriental temprano era aparentemente típica de sus comienzos en el siglo II y III, y sirve para explicar el origen de las obras gnósticas y gnosticistas en esta región, tales como el apócrifo Hechos de Tomás con el gnóstico “Himno de la Perla”, las Odas de Salomón, y la figura de Bardesanes, que es uno de los precursores inmediatos de Manes.

a “iglesia” maniquea vivía ahora tiempos difíciles; la afligían persecuciones y cismas. El sucesor de Manes al frente de la comunidad también sufrió el martirio. Esto llevó a un decaimiento del maniqueísmo en los territorios persas (a lo que contribuyó, por último, el movimiento revolucionario de los mazdakíes, del 494 al 524, suprimidos con cruel severidad), pero no en los demás lugares; al contrario, su difusión en los países del Este y el Oeste, se intensificó con la emigración. Mercaderes y misioneros (apóstoles) continuaron la obra de su fundador.

Hacia el 300, la “enseñanza de la luz”, como era llamada, puede ser encontrada en Siria, el norte de Arabia, Egipto y el norte de África (en donde se le incorporó San Agustín del 373 al 382). Desde Siria alcanzó Palestina, Asia Menor y Armenia. Ya al comienzo del siglo IV, hay evidencia de la existencia de maniqueos en Roma y Dalmacia, y pronto también en la Galia y España. Los edictos imperiales contra los herejes y los escritos polémicos anti-maniqueos tratan de contrarrestar su influencia pero sólo a partir del siglo VI comienza a desaparecer la religión, a pesar de que continúa hasta la Edad Media ejerciendo su influencia bajo diversos ropajes en otros círculos sectarios (paulicianos, bogomiles, cátaros). Aún más exitosa y permanentemente puede mantenerse en el Este, donde florece aun cuando ya no quedan más verdaderos maniqueos en Occidente; esto se debe probablemente a que el Islam termina con la posición monopólica del cristianismo y el zoroastrimo.

En los primeros tiempos de la conquista árabe, una vez más la religión de Manes fue tolerada en Persia, en cierta manera como una religión de moda entre la gente culta. Pero Asia Central se convirtió en su centro (Turkestán, la cuenca del Tarim) a donde habría llegado desde el Irán oriental (Chorasan). Aquí incluso se convirtió, en el 762, en la religión oficial del imperio Uigur. Luego del colapso del imperio (840), se mantuvo en los pequeños estados en los que se dividió junto con el budismo y el cristianismo nestoriano hasta el siglo XIII donde desapareció por completo, víctima del devastador ataque mongol. La importancia del maniqueísmo en Asia Central se ilustra con la gran cantidad de escritos y frescos de este período que se descubrieron a principios del siglo XX, durante el curso de varias expediciones de estudiosos alemanes, franceses y rusos, a Turfan.

En el siglo VII los seguidores de Manes incluso llegaron a China, vía el Turkestán y a través de la Ruta de la Seda. En el 694, los primeros apóstoles hicieron su aparición en la corte imperial china, y compitieron con budistas, nestorianos y taoístas. Varios edictos se ocupan del maniqueísmo y los hombres de letras del Confusionismo se opusieron a él ferozmente, ya que ellos sabían, en su trabajo misionero, cómo adaptarse a la tradición china. En el 843/44 se produjo una sangrienta persecución de la que fueron víctimas la mayor parte de las congregaciones. Pero incluso hacia el final del siglo XIV, los emperadores de la dinastía Ming tuvieron ocasión de tomar medidas contra los seguidores de “la religión de la venerable luz”.

Se dice (según fuentes portuguesas) que en el sur de China sobrevivían aún en el siglo XVII tradiciones maniqueas. La influencia maniquea incluso se ha rastreado hasta el Tibet. Así, la Gnosis Maniquea ha tenido una historia de más de mil años durante la cual se difundió desde España hasta China. Manes, por lo tanto, había estado en lo cierto cuando le dijo a su comunidad: “Pero mi esperanza va a viajar al Oeste y también hacia el Este. Y ellos oirán la voz de su predicación en todas las lenguas y será predicada en todas las ciudades. Mi religión sobrepasa en este primer momento a todas las religiones anteriores, ya que las religiones anteriores fueron fundadas en lugares individuales y ciudades individuales. Mi religión irá a todas las ciudades y su mensaje alcanzará todas las regiones”.

Los escritos maniqueos

En orden a proteger su obra de la falsificación, y asegurar que no fuera olvidada, Manes le concedió mucha importancia a mantener un registro escrito de su sistema doctrinal. En esto también apuntaba a superar a sus predecesores, los profetas anteriores y los fundadores de religiones, quienes en su opinión no habían compuesto obras de motu propio y cuyo mensaje, por lo tanto, sólo había sido preservado de forma incompleta. Con este propósito, desarrolló una nueva y práctica escritura, y compuso una serie de obras en iranio y siríaco para ser producidas caligráficamente y copiadas, cosas que las que le daba mucha importancia.

La cultura superior de los maniqueos, expresada en la escritura y los libros que aparecieron, le ganaron posteriormente el epíteto de “el pintor”. Desafortunadamente sólo escasos restos de sus propias obras han sobrevivido ya sea en las citas de sus adversarios, ya sea en los escritos de su comunidad. Pero por lo menos conocemos sus títulos: “Sabuhragan”, una obra dedicada al Gran Rey Sapur I, el “Evangelio Viviente” o “Gran Evangelio”, el “Tesoro de la Vida”, el “Pragmateia” (i.e. composición, obra de historia), el “Libro de los Secretos” (o “de los Misterios”), el “Libro de los Gigantes”, una colección de cartas y misivas, algunos salmos y oraciones, así como también una especie de libro de imágenes (“Eikon” o “Ardhang”) en el cual ilustraba con dibujos su visión del mundo. Hasta el final del siglo XIX casi no había fuentes maniqueas originales salvo las pocas preservadas por los heresiólogos cristianos, zoroastrianos e islámicos.

Sólo las expediciones a Turfan (1898-1916), antes mencionadas, depararon inesperadamente un rico botín de arte y literatura maniquea (en iranio, turco antiguo y chino). Las piezas más importantes fueron a Berlín y su publicación no ha concluido aún. Entre ellas hay textos doctrinales, himnos, plegarias, rituales, formularios confesionales, catecismos, cartas de exhortación y epístolas, comentarios, material narrativo de contenido histórico y mitológico, pinturas murales y miniaturas. Los escritos están, en su mayor parte, seriamente dañados y en forma fragmentaria, pero ellos nos han permitido, por vez primera, acceso directo a esta extraña religión, aun cuando provengan de su etapa tardía (siglos VI al X). De todos modos ellos contienen fragmentos de las obras de Manes, por ej. el Sabuhragan.

Algunas décadas después (en 1930), Carl Schmidt descubrió los textos maniqueos en copto de Medinet Madi (al sudoeste del oasis Fayum, en el Egipto Central) los que fueron en parte a Berlín y en parte a Londres . En contraste con los hallazgos de Turfan, estos textos coptios son códices relativamente bien conservados y también mucho más antiguos; ellos datan del 400 aproximadamente y, por lo tanto, han sido escritos sólo 150 años después de la aparición del maniqueísmo. Los escritos fueron probablemente traducidos del griego y el siríaco durante el transcurso del siglo IV en el Alto Egipto. Su edición todavía no ha concluido y, desafortunadamente, algunas partes se perdieron durante la segunda guerra mundial. Han sido publicados la Kephalaia (i.e. “artículos principales”), un manual enciclopédico en forma de conferencias de Manes a sus discípulos, que es hasta ahora la mejor introducción a su pensamiento que tenemos; luego una colección de homilías y un libro de salmos, valiosos testigos ambos de la piedad de la comunidad maniquea.

Recientemente ha aparecido un pergamino manuscrito griego en formato de bolsillo (3,5cm x 4,5cm) del siglo IV/V que lleva por título “Sobre la génesis de su (de Manes) cuerpo”, y que en parte es una biografía de Manes compilada por su comunidad de acuerdo a las tradiciones de los primeros discípulos. Este texto, que ha sido publicado hace poco, viene también de Egipto y pertenece a la colección de papiros de Colonia. Es el primer texto original maniqueo en griego que poseemos, el cual está basado en tradiciones orientales de la comunidad primitiva.

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Botica dijo...

El artículo es profuso en cuanto a la parte histórica del maniqueismo, sobre todo de sus orígenes. Eso está bien. Lo que a mi juicio le falta es profundizar en las ideas de Manes(o Mani), como ha evolucionado ya sea como religión o filosofía y que importancia tienen las enseñanzas de Manes en el siglo XXI.

Mallku dijo...

Me parece bien que se empiece a discutir sobre el maniqueísmo, ya que la mayor parte de conceptos que se encuentran sobre el tema son errados.

El término "maniqueo" es utilizado alegremente y con la más "cándida" ignorancia por seudo-intelectuales y mojigatos teólogos.

Quiero brindar si me permiten pequeñas perlas sobre Manes, declarado El Ilustre.

Al comenzar su evangelio se cuenta que dijo: "Así como el crístico Jeshu en Judea y el iluminado Shidartha en Oriente, llega ahora el Manes a las tierras de Babilonia con su mensaje de Verdad Cósmica..."

Asímismo su Verdad Cósmica "brindaba" razones para su persecusión y "justificaba" las cruzadas de TOTAL EXTINCIÓN para los maniqueos y sus seguidores... todo porque el propio Manes rompía LA GRAN MENTIRA y el ENGAÑO SINÁRQUICO cuando decía: "Este es un mundo imperfecto, creado por un demiurgo imperfecto".

Las investigaciones históricas nos cuentan que los huesos calcinados (por las hogueras inquisidoras) de los cátaros (maniqueos) eran realmente MOLIDOS y reducidos a polvo; pretendiendo que de "esos" no queden ni rastros, que no haya en el mundo huellas de su existencia; mucho menos señales de su afán de proclamar la VERDAD... pero aquí estamos listos para la BATALLA FINAL (tal como le dice Krisna a Arjona): "AHORA ES EL MOMENTO DE LA GRAN CONFRONTACIÓN".

PAX ET SALUS KRISTI

M::: Huyustus

Anónimo dijo...

Manes el Paracleto su Eclesia pervive, no es gnostica, aunque su máxima es el conocimiento

Anónimo dijo...

Se trata de una síntesis histórica. Es un trabajo muy útil, bien confeccionado. Es válido difundirlo pues provee al neófito de una primera comprensión general sobre la significación y alcance universal del Maniqueismo en tanto Iglesia de la Luz. Felicitaciones.

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